capulín macho, more...Jordancillo
[Trema domingense Urb., moreTrema integerrima (Beurl.) Standl., Trema laxiflora Lundell]
Tree, to 35 m tall and 60 cm diam., but typically 20–30 cm dbh, rarely shrubby. Trunk straight, cylindrical; leaves and branches spirally arranged on trunk, distichous on lateral branches; lateral branches relatively thin, sparsely branched, initially ascending, becoming perpendicular with age then pendent before falling off. Stilt roots or short buttresses to 50 cm tall sometimes present on larger individuals. Wood soft, sapwood thin, whitish, heartwood yellowish brown to beige. Outer bark on trunk initially greenish grey or whitish, smooth, becoming darker and rough with many warty lenticels with age; branch scars persisting on trunks up to at least 20 cm dbh. Inner bark fibrous and bitter, surface tan to reddish, interior tan to pinkish or redveined.
Branches terete except for low ridges descending down internode on both sides of petioles; internodes typically 1.5–6 cm long, with solid pith; surface smooth, green and pubescent, becoming greyish, ± glabrous and lenticellate in age; appressed whitish hairs 0.1–0.3 mm long, conspicuous on young branches but not persisting; dense very minute erect hairs <0.1 mm long persisting until epidermis shed. Terminal buds covered by stipules and young densely pubescent conduplicate leaves. Stipules free, lateral to petioles, lanceolate, 1.5–4.0 mm long, 0.6–0.8 mm wide at base, caducous. Leaves largest at base of lateral branches close to trunk, decreasing in mature size toward branch apex; reproductive specimens collected from tips of long branches often preserve smallest mature leaves while sterile specimens from short young branches preserve largest leaves.
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, petiolate. Petioles typically 0.4–2 cm long (median: 1.1 cm), ratio of petiole length to blade length 0.04–0.21 (median: 0.10); slender, grooved adaxially, pulvinus absent; finely pubescent with thin appressed hairs 0.1–0.3 mm long, sometimes with minute erect hairs 0.1 mm tall adaxially. Blades 5–20 cm long (median: 11.1 cm), 2–9 cm wide (median: 4.0 cm), ovate to narrowly lanceolate or rarely elliptic, larger and more ovate at base of branch, smaller and more narrowly lanceolate to elliptic at tips of longer branches, ratio of blade width to length 0.24–0.53 (median: 0.36), ratio of distance from base to widest part to blade length 0.17–0.48 (median: 0.28); base rounded, subcordate, subtruncate, or acute, rarely ± oblique; apex acuminate to long-acuminate, rarely acute, 0–4 cm long (median: 1.7 cm), ratio of apex length to blade length 0.06–0.34 (median: 0.16); margin entire in adults, rarely with a few minute teeth, but conspicuously toothed in juveniles, flat or ± revolute; lamina thin, green to yellowish green and ± shiny above, paler matte green below when fresh; drying olive-green and ± shiny above and yellow-green below, contrasting veins more yellowish or brownish. Upper (adaxial) surface of blade smooth when fresh to slightly scabrous when dry, warty when dry from abundant conspicuous circular cystoliths mostly ca. 0.1 mm diam., largest cystoliths with short sharp recurved hairs ca 0.1 mm long, smallest with longer caducous thin white appressed hairs 0.2–0.3 mm long; hairs on primary and secondary veins sparse, appressed, 0.2–0.4 mm long, ephemeral brown glandular hairs 0.1 mm long sometimes present. Lower (abaxial) surface of blade smooth when fresh to very slightly scabrous when dry, usually densely finely pubescent (but easily overlooked with a hand-lens), not glabrous in age as sometimes reported; hairs clear to white, thin, appressed, persistent, mostly 0.1–0.2 mm long, aligned in one direction toward margin or apex, with bases sometimes enlarged (to ca. 0.05 mm diam.) but only rarely approaching size of cystoliths on upper surface; hairs on primary and secondary veins appressed toward apex, longer than on blades, mostly 0.1–0.3 mm long (rarely to 0.5 mm). Venation 3-nerved at the base, pinnately nerved distally; typically 3–5 arching secondary veins per side, converging toward apex but only most apical vein on each side reaching into apex; tertiary veins widely spaced between midrib and secondary veins (2–5 mm apart), ± scalariform; higher order veins anastomosing, forming small ± rectangular cells ca. 0.5 mm wide. When fresh or dry, primary and secondary veins slightly impressed into blade on upper surface, tertiary and higher order veins above immersed in the blade; primary and secondary veins prominently raised above blade on lower surface, tertiary veins slightly raised, higher order veins immersed in blade.
Plants monoecious, possibly sometimes dioecious; flowers unisexual. Inflorescences axillary thyrsoid cymes, usually 2 per axil (with a vegetative bud between them), initiated at tips of growing lateral branches, each typically to 2 cm tall and 2 cm wide at anthesis, up to or slightly exceeding the petioles in length, to 3 cm tall by 4 cm wide in fruit; up to 60 flowers per cyme, with up to 20 fruits maturing per cyme; peduncles 1.5–5 mm long; branches within cymes 1–5 mm long; peduncles and branches green when fresh, with appressed to ascending hairs 0.1–0.3 mm long, persistent very minute erect hairs 0.1 mm long, and sometimes ephemeral brown glandular hairs 0.1 mm long. Bracts within cymes 0.6–1.2 mm long, pale green when fresh, with appressed hairs. Within each cyme, flower buds initially congested (glomerate), but flowers becoming more widely spaced (laxiflorous) by anthesis; carpellate and staminate flowers often intermixed, usually staminate flowers most abundant, sometimes inflorescences either all carpellate or all staminate; when cymes intermixed, flowering protogynous and fruit enlarging before staminate flowers reach anthesis.
Staminate flowers 1.3–1.5 mm in diameter in mature bud, to 2.2 mm in diameter at anthesis, falling soon after anthesis. Pedicels 0–0.3 mm long. Receptacle scarcely developed. Tepals 5, pale green, each 1.1–1.4 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm wide, elliptic to ovate in outline, strongly concave, induplicate-valvate; margins ciliate, especially at apex, with fine hairs 0.1–0.15 mm long; outer surface warty from enlarged bases of appressed thicker hairs 0.1–0.15 mm long. Stamens 5, opposite to and cupped within tepals before and just after opening, with filaments adjacent to tepals and anthers surrounding carpellode; filaments then extending and pushing anthers beyond tepals. Filaments inflexed in bud, as long as tepals when fully extended, ± flattened, white to pale green, glabrous. Anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long, subglobose, white to cream-colored, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen white when fresh, drying yellow to orange. Carpellode 1 mm long, subcylindrical to obovoid, pubescent at apex with erect minute hairs, pale green to cream-colored, with dense ring of long white erect hairs (0.4–0.5 mm tall) surrounding base.
Carpellate flowers ca. 2 mm long and 1 mm wide at anthesis. Pedicels initially 0.1–0.2 mm long, to 0.3 mm when fruits mature, jointed at apex; glabrous. Receptacle green, more than twice as wide as the pedicel apically, 0.3–0.4 mm long, with minute appressed hairs. Tepals 5, green, becoming yellowish-green and persisting below mature fruit, outer surface somewhat warty from enlarged bases of appressed thicker hairs (0.1–0.15 mm long), each 0.6–1 mm long, ± triangular, scarcely reaching half the length of ovary, dimorphic; outer tepals 2, each 0.3–0.5 mm wide, without wings; inner tepals 3, each 0.5–0.8 mm wide, flattened and closely appressed to ovary, with membranous minutely fimbriate wings. Staminodes absent. Ovary ovoid to ellipsoid, green, 0.8–1.1 mm long when receptive; glabrous or with a few hairs apically, with dense ring of long white erect hairs (0.4–0.5 mm tall) surrounding base but obscured by tepals. Stigmas 2, sessile, initially erect and appressed, 0.9–1.2 mm long, becoming whitish and recurved when receptive, then brown and shriveled after fruit set; inner surface papillate.
Fruit drupes, globose to ovoid, 2.5–3.0 mm long, 2–2.5 mm wide, short-apiculate from remains of stigma, green when immature, typically ripening pale pink to pale orangish pink (sometimes reported as orange or red). Exocarp thin; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarp thick, stony, 1.6 –2.0 mm long and 1.6–2.0 mm wide, slightly compressed, slightly sculptured, dark brown to black. Seed with thin seed coat, copious endosperm, curved embryo.
Descripción: Árbol de 5 a 25 m de alto. Tronco con la corteza exterior gris o amarillenta. Hojas simples y alternas, de 5-15 x 2-5 cm, lanceoladas, con ápice acuminado, bordes enteros y base cordada o redondeada. Las hojas son ligeramente ásperas al tacto y con tres nervaduras basales, en plantas juveniles pueden tener los bordes dentados, a diferencia de los adultos donde siempre los bordes son enteros. Estípulas deciduas. Pecíolo de 0.5-1.5 cm de largo. Flores blancas y pequeñas. Frutos en drupas globosas, de 0.3-0.4 cm de largo y con restos de los estigmas de la flor en la punta, verdes, tornándose anaranjados al madurar.
Datos Ecológicos: La especie crece a bajas y medianas elevaciones, en bosques húmedos o muy húmedos. En Panamá se encuentra en las provincias de Chiriquí, Colón, Darién, Los Santos y Panamá. Florece y fructifica durante todo el año, principalmente de abril a julio.
Especies Parecidas: A menudo se confunde con LK tremmi Trema micrantha LK2 , pero en T. micrantha las hojas presentan los bordes aserrados. LK guazul Guazuma ulmifolia LK2 tiene hojas muy parecidas, pero en G. ulmifolia las hojas presentan los bordes dentados y los frutos son cápsulas oblongas y globosas, cubiertos de pequeños tubérculos en el exterior.
Usos: La madera es empleada para leña y en la fabricación de cajones, revestimiento de interiores, tableros, aglomerados y pulpa para papel. La corteza se utiliza para extraer fibras empleadas como cuerdas para amarrar.