R. madruno (H.B.K.) Planch. & Tr. Madroño, Fruta de mono, Machari, Satro, Cero Glabrous, polygamodioecious tree, to 9 (20) m tall, less than 15 cm dbh; outer bark very thin; inner bark reddish; wood hard; sap yellow, in branches and trunk. Petioles 1-2.5 cm long, somewhat swollen at base with a short appendage on the inner side above the articulation; blades elliptic, acuminate, mostly acute at base, 7.5-22 cm long, 2.5-8 cm. wide, the midrib often arched; lateral veins and submarginal collecting vein visible on both surfaces (prominulous above when dry). Fascicles axillary, sessile, often at leafless nodes; pedicels slender, usually 2.5-3.5 cm long (rarely shorter); sepals 2, rounded at apex, +/- united at base, ca 3 mm long; petals 4, nearly orbicular, to 7 mm long, creamy-white, strongly reflexed at anthesis; bisexual flowers with fewer stamens than the staminate flowers; style short; stigma discoid, as broad as or broader than ovary. Fruits ovoid to globular, often weakly flattened, to 5 cm long and 4 cm wide, yellow, densely covered with puberulent, flattened protuberances to 3 mm long; exocarp thick, moderately hard; mesocarp thin, sweet; seeds usually 2, longer than broad. Croat 8240, 13847. Occasional, in the forest. Flowers in the dry season (rarely in the late rainy season). The fruits mature mostly from April to August. Mexico to Peru. In Panama, known from wetter parts of tropical moist forest in the Canal Zone, Chiriqui, Panama, and Darién and from premontane wet and tropical wet forests in Colon, Panama, and Darien.