P. caudulilimba C. DC. var. longependula C. DC.; P. gatunensis C. DC.; P. caudulilimba C. DC. var. cylindribacca (C. DC.) Yunck. Frequent in the forest, especially the older forest, generally high in trees but below the canopy. Flowering chiefly in the dry season and the early rainy season. The fruits develop rapidly, but most mature in the late dry and early rainy seasons; most fruits are gone by the middle of the rainy season. No doubt the most variable Peperomia on BCI. The habit differences indicate that more than one species is included, but no characters are sufficiently uniform to separate the material. The species is similar to and probably not separable from P. portobellensis Beurl., described from Portobelo (Colon Province). Standley (1933) misspelled P. caudulilimba as P. cordulilimba. Sometimes associated with Aechmea tillandsioides var. kienastii (22. Bromeliaceae) on the same ant nest. Mexico to South America; sea level to 1,800 m. In Panama, known from tropical moist forest in the Canal Zone, Bocas del Toro, Panamd, and Darien, from premontane moist forest in Coclé, and from premontane wet forest in Colon and Chiriqui. See Fig. 179.