Abundant throughout the forest, often forming dense stands, as along Zetek Trail near 1300. Probably the most objectionable plant on the island because of its fierce spines. Apparently flowering and fruiting chiefly in the rainy season. Fruits are both colorful and very tasty and are frequently torn open, apparently by coatis or other animals. Mexico to Ecuador. In Panama' apparently restricted to tropical moist forest on the Atlantic slope and in Darién.